Ward EF, Savoie FH, Hughes JL: Fractures of the Diaphyseal Humerus, in Browner BD, Jupiter JB, Levine AM and Trafton PG, Skeletal Trauma, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders 1998, pp. 1523-1548.
Norris TR, Green A: Proximal Humerus Fractures and Glenohumeral Dislocations, in Browner BD, Jupiter JB, Levine AM and Trafton PG, Skeletal Trauma, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders 1998, pp. 1549-1656.
Robinson CM, et al: Primary Hemiarthroplasty for treatment of proximal humeral fractures, JBJS 85-A(7) July 2003.
Bosch U, et al: Outcomes after Primary and Secondary Hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients with fracture of the proximal Humerus, J Shoulder Elbow Surgery 7(5) Sept/Oct 1998 pp. 479-484.
Goud A, et al: Radiographic evaluation of the shoulder; European Journal of Radiology, 68 (2008), pp. 2-15.
Starkey and Ryan, Evaluation of Orthopaedic and Athletic Injuries, 2nd edition, FA Davis, Philadelphia, PA, pp.424-488
Magee DJ, Orthopaedic Physical Assessment, Saunders, Philadelphia, PA 1987 pp. 62-92.
Levine AM, Orthopaedic Knowledge Update – Trauma 1996, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Rosemont, IL pp. 3-47
McRae R and Esser M, Practical Fracture Treatment, Churchill Livingstone, London, UK 2002, pp. 115-144
Helms CA, Fundamentals of Skeletal Radiology, Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 1995, pp. 97-100
Hoppenfeld s, Physical Examination of the Spine and Extremities, Appleton-Century-Crofts – Prentice Hall, NY,NY, 1976 pp 1-34.
Snider RK, Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Rosemont, IL, 1997 pp. 70-120
Brown DE, Neumann RD, Orthopaedic Secrets 2nd edition, Hanley & Belfus, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 87-114.
Rockwood CA, Green DP, Bucholz RW: Rockwood and Green’s Fractures in Adults, 3rd edition, JB Lippincott, NY, NY, 1991, pp 843-1295.
Koval KJ, Zuckermann JD: Handbook of Fractures, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins 3rd edition, Philadelphia, PA. 2006